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Muzeológia a kultúrne

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Contents 4/2020
Title: Uniform buttons within the context of the collection of the Waldes Museum of Buttons and Fasteners Abstract: The study deals with uniform buttons in the collection of the Waldes Museum of Buttons and Fasteners in Prague-Vršovice, which was founded at the initiative of Prague industrialist and philanthropist Jindřich Waldes. Over the course of the museum’s existence, from 1916 to 1945, the collection came to include more than 350 uniform buttons. This study tries to capture the significance of the collection at the Waldes Museum, both as exhibits in themselves, and as study material connected with the museum’s publication work or the building of a specialised archive and library on the other. It also presents selected exhibits from the collection in question, together with other associated objects and specialised materials. The study draws on expert consideration of the preserved collection, original publications and materials from the Waldes Museum Archive and specialised literature. Author: Hrušková, Kateřina Publication order reference: University of Hradec Králové, Philosophical Faculty, Institute of History, Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové 3, Czech Republic, e-mail: hruskka2@uhk.cz, katerina.hruskova@msb-jablonec.cz, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000- 0001-6440-095X Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 5-21. Key words: button, uniform, collecting, Waldes Museum Collection, Jindřich Waldes Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.1 Title: “Bones in the sandbox”: museum as “world picture” vs museum as “lifeworld” Abstract: This article deals with the issues of museum communication and interpretation of museum exhibits in a philosophical and cultural context. As an example, it considers two different ways of presenting palaeontological material – specifically, the skeleton of a southern mammoth – revealing differences in how the semantic content is interpreted. The first method – the traditional approach of assembling the skeleton – gives a “world picture” of a certain era, as it appears to a palaeontologist. The second approach presents the skeleton in a “sandbox”, representing how it was found during excavations, such that viewers deal not with the interpreted “ready- made” material, but with the contemporary experienced reality – the “life-world”, the “raw” source material. This allows visitors to realize their own creative potential and to recreate the nature of the Pleistocene epoch in their imagination. Thus, through the mutual correlation of the roles exhibition’s author and of the visitor as an interpreter, the semantic field of museum communication expands. In Heidegger’s conception, a “ hides the world rather than explains it, while the “life world” represents it as it is. Authors: Plokhotnyuk, Vladimir; Przhilenskaya, Irina; Przhilenskiy, Vladimir Publication order reference: North Caucasus Federal University, Institute of Engineering, Department of Design, 1 Pushkin Street, 355009, Stavropol, Russian Federation, e-mail: plvl@mail.ru; Institute of Social Studies and Humanities, Head of Department of Cultural Studies, 88 Vernadskogo Street, 119571, Moscow, Russian Federation, e-mail: prz-irina@mail.ru; Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL), Department of Philosophy and Sociology9 Sadovaya-Kudrunskaya Street, 125993, Moscow, Russian Federation, e-mail: vladprnow@mail.ru Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 23-34. Keywords: southern mammoth skeleton, palaeontology, museum exhibit presentation, interpretation, Heidegger, world picture Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.2 Title: Professional standards in museum pedagogy in the international context Abstract: Professional standards of museum work are defined by the clearly formulated International Council of Museums (ICOM) Code of Ethics and by the activity of professional organisations on both national and international levels. The goal to establish the general requirements for the education of museum workers was mainly pursued by the ICOM and some of its committees. Since museum pedagogy has developed into an independent discipline and museum pedagogue (educator) has became a full-value profession, the specialised commissions within individual professional organisations and the efforts of individual researchers have helped to gradually transform these general requirements into specific standards of museum pedagogy. These standards reflect both the scope of activities and necessary competencies of museum pedagogues, and the expected quality of education practice in museums (best practice). The varied views of professional standards for museum pedagogues in the international context represent a source of inspiration in the sphere of Czech museum pedagogy, which is undergoing a dynamic development in several areas of its activities (educational practice, consolidated legislative position) and gradually formulating its own professional standards. Author: Jagošová, Lucie Publication order reference: Masaryk University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Museology, Arna Nováka 1, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic & Comenius University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Ethnology and Museology, Gondova 2, 811 01 Bratislava, Slovakia, email: jagosova@phil.muni.cz Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 35-47. Keywords: professional standards, museum pedagogue, museum work, museum pedagogy Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.3 Title: Museological school as a process of professional formation based on traditions and innovations: Crimean foreshortening Abstract: In this article, we describe the activities of the “Museum Studio”, which opened in Koktebel in 2016. The history of Russian museology and international experience are two important pillars on which the School is based. Today, the School is a platform for educational events and discussions with the participation of leading Russian and foreign experts. The platform has developed an innovative model of interaction with specialists seeking to improve their qualification level. The main ideas and formats of this model are covered in this article.  Author: Chuvilova, Irina Publication order reference: Research Group “Russian Museum Encyclopedia”, (New Institute for Cultural Research), Vasilievskaya str., 13-1, 123056 Moscow, Russian Federation, e-mail: ivl12@yandex.ru Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 49-57. Keywords: museology, museum history, mid-career education, inter-museum cooperation Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.4 Title: Musealisation of communism, or how to create national identity in historical museums Abstract: The goal of the article is to critically analyse and deconstruct museum narratives about communism in East-Central Europe 30 years after transformation. The research material is museum exhibitions interpreted in accordance with the methodology of visual research (composition analysis, content analysis, analysis of material objects, and analysis of meanings). The first and most important museum type from the perspective of the memory cano The Act of 6 June 1997 Penal Code (Journal of Laws of 1997, item 553). Art. 125. § 1. Whoever destroys, damages or takes away a cultural object in an occupied area or in which military operations are taking place, violating international law, shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between one and 10 years. § 2. If the act concerns goods of particular importance for culture, the perpetrator shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for not less than 3 years. Art. 278. § 1. Whoever takes away someone else’s movable property for the purpose of appropriation shall be subject to the penalty of deprivation of liberty for a term of between 3 months and 5 years. § 2. The same punishment shall be imposed on anyone who, without the consent of the authorised person, obtains someone else’s computer program in order to gain financial benefits. § 3. In the case of an act of a lesser significance, the perpetrator is subject to a fine, limitation of liberty or deprivation of liberty for one year. § 4. If the theft was committed to the detriment of the closest person, the prosecution takes place at the request of the injured party. Art. 279. § 1. Whoever steals by burglary is punishable by imprisonment from one to 10 years. § 2. If the burglary was committed to the detriment of the closest person, the prosecution takes place at the request of the injured party. n, as it represents the official historical policy of most East-European states, is the so-called identity or heroic museum. Its purpose is not so much to show the truth about the past but to create the collective memory of a society and its positive self-image. Author: Ziębińska-Witek, Anna  Publication order reference: Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Institut of History Poland, email: anna.ziebinska-witek@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl, ORCID: 0000-0003-2682-748X Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 59-72. Keywords: historical museum, exhibition, communism, collective memory, narratives Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.5 Title: VR technologies as an extension to the museum exhibition: A case study of the Silk Road museums in Samarkand Abstract: The geographical dispersion of the Silk Road generates a number of problems with the availability of its heritage for visitors. ICT can at least partially address these problems. This article discusses the concept of extending the Silk Road museums’ offer with virtual reality (VR) technologies, which has been tested based on a virtual exhibition, developed through a long-term cooperation between Lublin University of Technology and museums in Samarkand in the field of 3D digitization and dissemination of their exhibitions. A survey of a group of spectators was conducted and its results are discussed. It revealed that VR is a promising technology, widely accepted among spectators and well suited for the specificity of the Silk Road museums, and it could be used primarily to complement traditional exhibitions. Authors: Żyła, Kamil;  Montusiewicz, Jerzy;  Skulimowski, Stanisław;  Kayumov, Rahim Publication order reference: Lublin University of Technology – Department of Computer Science, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Republic of Poland, e-mail: k.zyla@pollub.pl; Lublin University of Technology – Department of Computer Science, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Republic of Poland, e-mail: j.montusiewicz@pollub.pl; Lublin University of Technology – Department of Computer Science, Nadbystrzycka 36B, 20-618 Lublin, Republic of Poland, e-mail: s.skulimowski@pollub.pl; Samarkand State University – Scientific-Experimental Museum-Laboratory, University Boulevard 15, 703004 Samarkand, Republic of Uzbekistan, e-mail: rahim- kayumov@rambler.ru Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 73-93. Keywords: museum, virtual reality, virtual museum exhibitions, Silk Road, exploratory survey Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.6 Title: How to exhibit a human mummy in a former monastery? The case of the body of Michael Willmann (1630–1706) Abstract: This paper discusses the mummified body of Michael Willmann (1630–1706) – one of the most outstanding painters of the Baroque period in Central Europe. Willmann’s mummy was preserved in the crypt of the former Cistercian monastery church in Lubiąż, Silesia (Poland). The article presents the history of the mummy and possibilities for opening the crypt and displaying it to the public, following the example of similar expositions in Europe which have found respectful and sensitive solutions for presenting the bodies of the deceased (e.g. Capuchin Crypt in Palermo and Capuchin Church in Brno). Willmann’s mummy is not only the body of an artist, but also a part of the cultural heritage of the Lubiąż Cistercians, making it worthy museification. This issue is particularly important in the context of the plans for establishing the Michael Willmann Museum in the former Cistercian monastery church in Lubiąż. Author: Kozieł, Andrzej Publication order reference: University of Wroclaw, Institute of Art History, ul. Szewska 36, 50-139 Wrocław Poland, e-mail: andrzej.koziel@uwr.edu.pl Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 95-105. Keywords: Michael Willmann, mummy, the monastery crypt, Lubiąż, Cistercians, exposition Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.7 Title: Synagogue Decorations in Present-Day Ukraine: Practice in Preservation of Cultural and Artistic Heritage  Abstract: There are approximately ten historical synagogue buildings left in Ukraine today which continue, to varying extents, to preserve their original wall paintings and decoration. A number of these were only recently discovered. The attempts underway, beginning in the early 2000s, to preserve as well as uncover old paintings often produce the opposite effect, destroying authentic works. The cultural significance of these historical landmarks requires that they be included in a single international register, along with supervision and an agreed upon preservation program designed individually for each. Synagogue wall paintings will inevitably perish unless ways of transferring this heritage are sought that will move these works to a different and more reliable “medium of cultural memory”. Different, innovative approaches to museum preservation and ways of presenting these works to public view are called for. Among the tried and tested options are: reconstructing old synagogue interiors which contain wall or ceiling paintings; using motifs taken from the original paintings in new works being produced for the Jewish community; and work on exhibition projects, catalogues and two-dimensional reconstruction models. Authors: Kotlyar, Eugeny; Sokolyuk, Lyudmyla; Pavlova, Tetiana Publication order reference: Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Department of Monumental Paintings, Vul. Mystetstv, 8, 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: eugeny.kotlyar@gmail.com; Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Department of Theory and History of Arts, Vul. Mystetstv, 8, 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: sokolyuk_l@ukr.net; Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Department of Visual Practice, Vul. Mystetstv, 8, 61002 Kharkiv, Ukraine, e-mail: pavlovat@yahoo.com Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 111-136. Keywords: Ukraine, synagogue wall paintings, state, conservation, presentation Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.8 Title: Against the “Moonlight and Magnolia” myth of the American South. A new materialist approach to the dissonant heritage of slavery in the US: The case of Whitney Plantation in Wallace, LA Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the operations of the Whitney Plantation Museum, which opened in 2014 in Wallace, LA (USA), situated within the context of plantation heritage tourism in the American South. The argumentation offers an illustration of the significant transition, even though still of marginal character, of the dominant tendencies of representing slavery in heritage sites (plantation museums) devoted to cultivating knowledge about the history of the region. New materialist in its orientation, the analysis subscribes to the most fundamental assumption of this philosophical tendency, namely that knowledge is generated in material- semiotic ways, and applies this approach in an enquiry into the educational experience offered to visitors by this heritage site. The article argues that although the emergence of institutions such as Whitney Plantation is meant to pluralise the memorial landscape of a given community, rather than serving as multivocal spaces they tend to remain steeped in fragmentation. Author: Golańska, Dorota Publication order reference: University of Lodz, Faculty of Philology, Department of Cultural Research, Poland, e-mail dorota.golanska@uni.lodz.pl Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 137-160. Keywords: Dissonant heritage; slavery; plantation tourism; Whitney Plantation Museum; new materialism Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.9 Title: African Art: The Journey from Ethnological Collection to the Museum of Art Abstract: This article aims to show the transformation in the way African art is displayed in museums which has taken place over the last few decades. Over the last 70 years, from the second half of the twentieth century, the field of African Art studies, as well as the forms taken by art exhibitions, have changed considerably. Since W. Rubin’s controversial exhibition Primitivism in 20th Century Art at MoMA (1984), art originating from Africa has begun to be more widely presented in museums with a strictly artistic profile, in contrast to the previous exhibitions which were mostly located in ethnographical museums. This could be the result of the changes that have occurred in the perception of the role of museums in the vein of new museology and the concept of a “curatorial turn” within museology. But on the other hand, it seems that the recognition of the artistic values of old and contemporary art from the African continent allows art dealers to make large profits from selling such works. This article also considers the evolution of the idea of African art as a commodity and the modern form of presentations of African art objects. The current breakthrough exhibition at the Bode Museum in Berlin is thoroughly analysed. This exhibition, entitled Beyond compare, presents unexpected juxtapositions of old works of European art and African objects of worship. Thus, the major purpose of this article is to present various benefits of shifting meaning from “African artefacts” to “African objects of art,” and therefore to relocate them from ethnographic museums to art museums and galleries. Author: Pawłowska, Aneta Publication order reference: Department of Art History, University of Łódź, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2847-4403, aneta.pawlowska@uni.lodz.pl Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 161-176. Keywords: African art, museum, exhibitions, contemporary art, Beyond Compare Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.10 In Practice  Title: Protection of national heritage in the light of the applicable law and the actions provided in this area by police in Poland Abstract: The issue of national heritage is an inseparable element of the existence of every nation. The article presents the legal regulations aimed at the protection of cultural heritage in Poland, as well as statistical data relating to crime in this area. The solutions adopted by the Polish police in the field of the identifying and combating of crime against cultural property and national heritage are also described. Furthermore, the article highlights the most serious crime against the national heritage that has occurred in Poland in recent years. The subject article was prepared on the basis of the analysis of literature, existing legislation and two interviews with Polish police officers. Authors: Dworzecki, Jacek; Nowicka, Izabela; Urbanek, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Adam Publication order reference: Military University of the Land Forces in Wroclaw, Academy of the Police Force in Bratislava, e-mail: jacek.dworzecki@awl.edu.pl, ORCID: 0000-0002-9357-5713; Military University of the Land Forces in Wroclaw, e-mail: izabela.nowicka@awl.edu.pl, ORCID: 0000-0001-8974-0803; Pomeranian University in Slupsk, e-mail: andrzej.urbanek@apsl.edu.pl, ORCID: 0000-0003-0667-4068; Pomeranian University in Slupsk, e-mail: adam.kwiatkowski@apsl.edu.pl, ORCID: 0000-0002-0054- 6375 Source: Muzeológia a kultúrne dedičstvo, year: 2020, vol.:8, number: 4,  pages: 177-198. Keywords: national heritage, Poland, law, statistical terms Language: English online full-text PDF DOI: 10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.11
Articles (Abstracts)

Full-text version

DOI:10.46284/mkd.2020.8.4.0
  ISSN 1339-2204 eISSN 2453-9759 Vol. 8 (2020), No. Is. 4